In Nelson Goodman’s (1954), Fact Fiction and Forecast, the notion of projectible predication arises to differentiate hypotheses based on regularities well grounded in experience and those which are not. There is a parallel treatment of counterfactuals (If X, then Y, and not-x, as in “If this thing in my hand was made of copper, it would conduct electricity but it is actually a wooden popsicle stick”) involving relationships well-grounded in experience and those which are not. What might we say about facts, fictions, and forecasts, in educational research or in the current political climate?
- There is someone in this room who loves all and only those persons in this room who do not love themselves.
- Never in the course of human history have events so resembled the present as they now do.
- It is a fact that X leaked Y but that fact is fake news
- There are an even number of planets in the Milky Way galaxy
- If X is a human being, then X knows less than X is typically inclined to believe that X knows.
- More than one of the above is true
- More than one of the above is false.